2023 Ohio American Innovation Dollar – Underground Railroad

The 2023 Ohio American Innovation Dollar (Buy on eBay) honors the legendary Underground Railroad, a decentralized network during the 19th century that covertly helped enslaved African Americans escape to freedom.

2023 Ohio American Innovation Dollar
2023 Ohio American Innovation Dollar

The Underground Railroad was partly the work of Harriet Tubman and many others, who were part of a loose network of people, families, and churches. A dozen Underground Railroad routes ran through Ohio and totaled 3,500 miles, with special stations to assist enslaved people trying to get through the network to freedom. Ohio was especially pivotal because it was the southernmost free state bordering the northernmost slave states of Kentucky and Virginia.

The reverse design depicts two strong hands grasped together, the upper arm pulling the lower arm upward, representing the support and strength required by both parties on the Underground Railroad. A chain fastened to a rustic shackle around the lower arm’s wrist snaps and fragments, alluding to the hope of freedom. This side has the inscriptions “UNITED STATES OF AMERICA,” “UNDERGROUND RAILROAD,” and “OHIO.” The reverse was designed by AIP artist Beth Zaiken and sculpted by Medallic Artist Stephen Layne.


  • Denomination: $1.00
  • Composition: 88.5% copper, 6% zinc, 3.5% manganese, 2% nickel
  • Diameter: 26.5 mm
  • Weight: 8.1g
  • Thickness: 2.0 mm
  • Edge: lettered
  • Mint Mark: “P” (Philadelphia), “D” (Denver), “S” (San Francisco)


  • 2023-P: 495,125
  • 2023-D: 447,450
  • 2023-S Proof: 49,936
  • 2023-S Reverse Proof: TBD

Mintages based on U.S. Mint Sales figures as of November 7, 2023

Other 2023 American Innovation Dollars:

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